Pronunciation of ‘-ed’ Endings in English

Hi teachers. It’s been a long time since the last post. Thank you for returning!

In today’s post we will focus on a nice pronunciation rule for ‘ed’ endings in English. In English many words can end with ‘ed’. For example:

  1. kicked (to kick)
  2. punched (to punch)
  3. hugged (to hug)
  4. loved (to love)
  5. wanted (to want)
  6. needed (to need)
  7. played (to play)
  8. called (to call)

Most of these words in English ending with ‘ed’ are Regular Verbs. Regular Verbs are verbs you simply ‘ed’ to when changing them into the Past Simple (Verb 2) form. You can listen to them below.

However, there are some useful ‘ed’ words which look like verbs but act like adjectives. You can test this by adding these ‘ed’ adjectives to ‘I am…’ or ‘I feel…’. Some examples of ‘ed’ adjectives are below:

  1. amazed by (to be amazed by something)
  2. excited about (to be excited about something)
  3. interested in (to be interested in something)
  4. bored of (to be bored of something)

You can listen to these below:

When you listen to the pronunciation of the examples above you can hear three different pronunciations of the ‘ed’ ending. These are /t/, /d/ and /ɪd/. With /ɪd/ you can hear that it adds an extra syllable to the original word. For example:

  1. want – wanted
  2. wait – waited
  3. need – needed
  4. fade – faded

Why Different Pronunciations?

So why do some ‘-ed’ endings have a /t/, /d/ or /ɪd/ sound? The answer to this question is in the last letter/s of the word. If you have read some of our previous posts you might have come across the words ‘voiced’ and ‘voiceless’ sounds in English. To keep things simple, ‘voiceless’ sounds make the ‘-ed’ /t/ and ‘voiced’ sounds make the ‘-ed’ /d/. As for /ɪd/ this is easy. /ɪd/ occurs when the last letter/s of the word is ‘-t’, ‘-te’ or ‘-d’, ‘-de’.

The difficulty is knowing which letters in English are ‘voiceless’ and which letters in English are ‘voiced’. Don’t worry, we have made it easy and have produced a nice poster you can use in your class. This can help remind yourself and your students about the ‘ed’ pronunciation rule.

ed endings poster-1

DOWNLOAD HERE: ‘ed’ Ending Pronunciation Wall Poster

Classroom Activities with ‘ed’ Endings.

You can play a nice game with your students by drawing three pipes labelled /t/, /d/ or /ɪd/ on the board:

ed endings activity new.png

Then you can write or use word cards above the drawing and get students to decide which pipe that word should go down. If you are using word cards students can come to the board and physically move the card down one of the three pipes.

You can make it more competitive by dividing your class into teams and different students from each team can come to the board and choose which pipe the word should go down.

You can also give points to the teams which choose the correct pipe and give extra points to the team with the best pronunciation too!

Listening Activities with ‘ed’ Endings

A more effective way to help your students develop phonemic awareness (this is your students’ familiarity with the pronunciation patterns in English through listening) might be to do the above activity as a listening activity. So instead of writing or using word cards, you can say the word and students decide which ‘ed’ pronunciation it has.

For example, you say ‘cooked’ and students come to the board (or choose a), b) or c)) and choose the correct pronunciation. They can even repeat the word back to the class.

To make it more challenging you can say the word in root form (this works best with Regular Verbs) and students decide which ‘ed’ pronunciation it would have in its Verb 2 form.

For example, you say ‘cook’ and students decide if it is cooked /t/, cooked /d/ or cooked /ɪd/.

Why Is This Important?

A strong sign of ‘non-native’ like English is with the pronunciation of the ‘ed’ endings. For example, you might hear students pronounce the words below as follows:

  1. wash – washed
  2. watch – watched
  3. stop – stopped
  4. missed – missed

Can you correct the pronunciation? You can listen below to check:

Interestingly, ‘native English’ speaking children tend to overuse the /ɪd/ pronunciation, but this is usually with Irregular Verbs in Verb 2 form for example:

  1. buy – buyed, boughted
  2. go – goed, wented
  3. hurt – hurted
  4. eat – eated, ated

Don’t worry about this. Children usually over-generalise language patterns as their language develops over time. Here they are over-generalising the ‘ed’ rule and using it with Irregular Verbs. You might even hear your students doing the same!

The key here, is patience. Use a lot of listening activities to keep your students aware of the ‘ed’ pronunciation rule and they will pick it up over time as their language improves and develops.

Getting your students aware of the different ‘ed’ pronunciations will also help them understand the time references better when listening. For example:

  1. Who picked these oranges?
  2. I played badminton.
  3. They started the game at 6am.

Here, if students become used to hearing the different ‘ed’ endings they know it is referring to the past. Sometimes in English, speakers leave out adverbs such as yesterday, last week, earlier this morning, 2 minutes ago, because the past can be marked with the ‘ed’ ending on Regular Verbs.

If you ae worried your own pronunciation as a teacher, please use the wall poster as a reminder and practise the pronunciation of any target words you will use in your lesson.

Remember that with the /t/ and /d/ pronunciation of the ‘-ed’ ending DO NOT add an extra syllable. For example, listen to the words below. Notice that the number of syllables is the same:

  1. cook – cooked (might look like ‘cookt’)

/kʊkt/

  1. beg – begged (might look like ‘begd’)

/begd/

However, with /ɪd/ pronunciation of the ‘-ed’ ending you add an extra syllable. Listen to the words below:

  1. start – start-ed     /stɑ:t/ – /stɑ:t.ɪd/
  1. cor-rect – cor-rect-ed     /kə.rekt/ – /kə.rekt.ɪd/
  1. nod – nod-ded     /nɒd/ – /nɒd.ɪd/
  1. re-ward – re-ward-ed     /rɪ.wɔ:d/ – /rɪ.wɔ:d.ɪd/

So keep your students busy with developing their awareness of the different ‘-ed’ ending pronunciations in English and hope you will notice improvements in process!

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Thank you for reading and catch you again soon with our next post!

To /s/ /z/ or /ɪz/: Plural ‘-s’ Endings in English

Hi Teachers and Visitors to this website. This is a re-post from an earlier entry. We felt it got lost there so here it is again. Enjoy!

Plural ‘s’ in English.

In English plural countable nouns are nouns we add an ‘s’ to express that there is more than one. For example a cup (one cup), two cups, a bag (one bag), three bags, an apple (one apple), four apples, an orange (one orange), five oranges.

English generally has three ‘s’ sounds when it comes to plural countable nouns. These are /s/ /z/ and /ɪz/.

When describing English sounds, we usually say /s/ is voiceless (a slight whistling air comes out your mouth as you make the sound) and /z/ is voiced (you feel a stronger vibrating sound in your throat). This is illustrated below:

/ɪz/ is also voiced because it has /z/ in it.

The general rule for knowing when plural ‘s’ (the last letter ‘s’ you see in plural countable nouns like cups, herbs, oranges) is that:

  • If the final letter of the word is a voiceless sound the plural ‘s’ sound is /s/. Remember voiceless  + voiceless.
  • If the final letter of the word is a voiced sound, the plural ‘s’ is /z/. Remember voiced + voiced.

You can see this with the chart below (which you can also download for free to use with the ELE Flashcard Flipbook):

Plural S Teacher's Pronunciation Key

DOWNLOAD Plural S Teacher’s Pronunciation Key

Based on the above you can see that most words in English end with a /z/ sound. That’s because all vowels in English are voiced and most of the consonant sounds are voiced too (you can read our blog about English sounds here).

Words which end with voiceless sounds are: cup /p/, hat /t/, sock /k/, cliff /f/ and moth /θ/. As a result, any word which ends with these sounds will have /s/ in their plural form.

As for /ɪz/ this is the sound for plural countable nouns ending with the following sounds:

  • /s/ which you can hear in the letters ‘c’, ‘x’. For example ‘fence, fences‘ and ‘box boxes‘.
  • /z/ which you can hear in the letters ‘s’ and ‘z’. For example ‘cheese cheeses‘ and ‘maze mazes
  • /ʃ/ which you can hear in the letters ‘sh’. For exampled ‘dish dishes‘.
  • /ʧ/ which you can hear in the letters ‘ch’ and ‘tch’. For example ‘watch watches‘.
  • /ʤ/ which you can hear in letters ‘j’ and ‘g’. For example ‘jumper’ and ‘orange oranges‘. (We will write a seperate blog on this sound because in English it can be difficult o know when ‘g’ is /g/ or /ʤ/).

Any word which ends with those sounds will usually have /ɪz/ in their plural form.

REMEMBER This rule is for COUNTABLE NOUNS. This rule also applies to VERBS. For example:

  • I cook      He cooks /s/
  • I dig         She digs /z/
  • I wash     He washes /ɪz/

Why is this important?

For many speakers this is not a big problem and generally does not effect communication. However, this is an interesting feature of English pronunciation and practising this will help speakers who struggle with ending sounds in English.

This is especially noticeable with Vietnamse and Thai speakers who tend to leave many English words open (without an ending sound). By using this interesting pronunciation feature of English teachers can help their pupils and students become more accurate with their pronunciation of plural countable nouns and also encourage their pupils and students to pronounce English words in full with the ending sounds.

Give it a try and see if your pupils and students pronunciation improves over time.

Thank you for reading this post and don’t forget to FOLLOW us by simply clicking the FOLLOW button when prompted. Also leave a COMMENT if you found this post useful and also if you found our new ELE Flashcard Flipbook practical!

Thank you again and see you soon with our next post!

CLIL Biology Board Game

Beware the Virus Board Game-1

CLIL Biology Board Game

Would you like to try a board game to help your students review key topics about human biology? Give this a try!

This was a board game made to help CLIL teachers of Biology address the 4 C’s of CLIL: Content (using materials that are suitable), Cognition (helping students think more deeply), Communication (helping students to use the target language with each other) and Cultural (to help build students’ knowledge and experiences of the world around them). The teachers really enjoyed the game and it is hoped they will try it with their students at their schools.

You can download it below and try with your students if you work in a CLIL Biology context.

It is a bit resource heavy because you do need to print them out and in colour if possible!

A special mention needs to go out to Mr P. Scott who produced the question cards which were selected to demonstrate this board game. You can find the questions cards at a reasonable price here:

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resources/shop/Scuttscience

Direct link to Quiz Cards here:

https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/b1-core-biology-quiz-cards-11044455

You can also make and use your own question cards for the game to review any area from human biology.

As usual, if you found this board game useful and addresses the 4 C’s of CLIL then please hit the FOLLOW button below to get updates and leave a COMMENT below!

Until next time, enjoy!

Beware the Virus Board Game-1

DOWNLOAD HERE Beware the Virus Board Game

Beware the Virus Rules Sheet-1.jpg

DOWNLOAD HERE Beware the Virus Rules Sheet

Virus Cards for Monitor -1.jpg

DOWNLOAD HERE Virus Cards for Monitor

Antibodies Cards for Collection -1.jpg

DOWNLOAD HERE Antibody Cards for Collection

Virus Cards-1

DOWNLOAD HERE Virus Cards

 

Counter Cards-1DOWNLOAD HERE Counter Cards

You can get your students to draw their own cells into the squares above. They can use as counters to play the board game.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FROM YOU

You will need to make a set (referred to as a ‘deck’ in the RULES SHEET above) of QUESTION and ANSWER cards. You will need about 20+ of each. Refer to the RULES SHEET above to see what to do with them.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MONITOR

For each group assign your strongest student to be the monitor. The monitor’s main task is to manage the game. They will need the following from you:

1. Answer Key for the QUESTION and ANSWER cards.

2. Virus card

The monitor needs to:

1. Read the cards out to the players.

2. Ensure all players are following the rules of the game.

3. Decide if the players’ responses are acceptable or not.

 

CLIL Biology Wall Posters and Flashcards

biology poster

CLIL Biology Wall Posters and Flashcards

Hello teachers. A slightly new topic this week. I am currently working with some very hard-working secondary school Biology teachers in Viet Nam who are trying their best to make sense of CLIL. I made this poster to give an idea of the kind of support  CLIL Biology teachers can give to their students to support pronunciation of difficult biology words they may encounter.

As you can see, the poster is colourful and suitable to have on the wall in your classroom (you can download it in the link below). Try to make some posters of your own and see what difference it will make to your students’ English!

Included here are also some flashcards I made to demonstrate a Biology lesson on photosynthesis. You can download these flashcards below with the ‘Word Cards’ and use with your students if you like!

 

 

As usual, please hit the ‘FOLLOW’ button below to stay updated on the latest posts and please leave a comment in the ‘COMMENT’ box below if you found the poster and flashcards useful!

Catch you soon!

DOWNLOAD POSTER Biology Poster Words With An ‘ee’ Sound

DOWNLOAD FLASHCARDS Photosynthesis Flashcards

DOWNLOAD WORD CARDS Photosynthesis Word Cards